Freemasonry in Spain
Freemasonry in Spain is first recorded in 1728, in an English cabin. As different ecclesiastical bulls censured Freemasonry the Spanish Inquisition did their best to close hotels and disparage Freemasons, thusly the accomplishment of Freemasonry from year to year relied upon the compassion or abhorrence of the decision routine. By the by, lodges and even Grand Lodges were shaped, and even flourished during progressively liberal periods. At the point when Francisco Franco solidified power in 1939, all Freemasonry was prohibited. In 1979, four years after Franco's passing, bans on Freemasonry were pronounced illegal, and a few Grand Lodges and Orients currently thrive in Spain.
On 15 February 1728, a Lodge named La Matritense or Las Tres Flores de Lys, most likely after the name of the inn in which it met, was framed on the Via San Bernardo in Madrid. It met in the condos of a Past Grand Master of England, the Duke of Wharton, with Charles de Labelye as Master. This hotel was conceded a Warrant by the Grand Lodge of England on 29 March 1729, the Lodge being set on the Roll as No.50.
Around the same time, 1728, the Lodge of St. John of Jerusalem was comprised at Gibraltar and later put on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of England as No.51. In 1731, Captain James Cummerford, at that point presenting with the British Army in Gibraltar, was designated Provincial Grand Master for Andalusia, by which was implied Gibraltar and neighboring spots. Gibraltar had been, since 1713, under British control and this Provincial Grand Lodge of Andalusia proceeded to shape holds up all through southern Spain.
At first, the participation of Masonic Lodges in Spain comprised of exiles from Britain and France, yet it was not some time before Spaniards started to join. Disregarding this, for the majority of the eighteenth century no sorted out and stable brick work emerged in Spain. The few hotels that were established had a brief and dubious life in light of the fact that the Spanish Inquisition rushed to arraign, implementing the ecclesiastical bulls and the declaration of Fernando VI on 2 July 1751 restricting Freemasonry. For instance, the military hotel established in Barcelona in 1748 that had started in Nice was condemned to the Inquisition only two years after the fact and shut down. It was redesigned in 1776, however again the Inquisition stepped it out and captured all its leaders.
In 1767, a Grand Lodge of Spain (Gran Logia Espanola) was shaped, and Spanish Freemasonry proclaimed itself autonomous from England. The principal Grand Master was the Count of Aranda, Prime Minister of Charles III. In 1780, the name of this body was changed to the Gran Oriente Espanola, and it embraced the French framework. It is realized that a considerable lot of the priests of Charles III were Freemasons alongside a noteworthy rundown of unmistakable Spanish nobles and high authorities. In 1800, under the bearing of the successor of Aranda, the Count of Montijo, the Grand Orient had 400 lodges.
Judgment and mistreatment
As Freemasonry developed in Spain, it excited the doubts and threatening vibe of both the Church and the common specialists. On 28 April 1738, Pope Clement issued In eminenti apostolatus, censuring Freemasonry and restricting Catholics from joining. In Spain, the encyclical got the imperial exequatur and the Inquisitor-general distributed an order dated 11 October 1738, guaranteeing elite purview on the issue and called for criticisms inside six days under agony of expulsion and a fine of 200 ducats.
In 1752, a year after the proclamation of the Royal Decree which banned Freemasonry, Franciscan Father José Torrubia distributed A Guard against Freemasons (Centinela contra francmasones), a gathering of hostile to Masonic remote writings. Freemasonry was an abomination to Spanish Catholicism, and progressed toward becoming related with terms, for example, "blasphemy", "Jewish", "nonbeliever", "Jansenist" and "Manichaean". The incessant utilization of these words to allude to the Masons clarifies why it was not until 1843 that the term Freemasonry showed up in the Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy as "mystery relationship, in which a few images taken from the workmanship, for example, squares, levels, and so forth are used."
Rule of Ferdinand VII (1808-1833)
With the intrusion of the Napoleonic troops in 1808 hotels showed up which were instruments of Napoleonic approach. Barcelona had six, one of which was essentially called "Steadfast Friends of Napoleon", and were for the most part made out of military Frenchmen. This sort of Bonapartist Freemasonry vanished when French troops left the nation in 1813
Just as hotels supporting the "French" government of Joseph Bonaparte in Spain, there were likewise "Loyalist" Lodges which did not perceive the surrender of Bayonne accordingly still viewed Ferdinand VII as their legitimate ruler. Hostile to Masonic papers emerged, for example, the Sun of Cádiz (1812-1813) which expressed that, "A malicious rank of men has spread all over Spain , who need simply the disruption of the state and concealment of religion". Another fantasy emerged concerning the Mason's nighttime exercises. An article distributed in 1812 contains the notice, "Individuals of Malaga, escape these savage night wolves." The eighteenth century antimasonic criticism proceeded unchanged.
After the 1814 reclamation of supreme government by Ferdinand, oppression of Freemasonry by the Spanish Inquisition achieved its peak.The new Grand Inquisitor, Bishop Mier y Campillo, one of whose fixations was Freemasonry, issued two proclamations in mid 1815 after the orders of the Holy See. Mier blamed Masons for plotting "against positions of royalty, however extraordinarily against religion'" and urged individuals to deceive them, ensuring secrecy. The appropriation of the property of Freemasons was additionally included. There were numerous objections, some false, and admissions, which prompted the conclusion of cabins. Remote Masons were removed from Spain and the Spaniards were compelled to experience profound activities. Nonetheless, there were Masons who did not get such merciful treatment. Such was the situation of the liberal military officer Juan Van Halen. In 1817 he was tormented for two days in the wake of being captured by the Inquisition. Van Halen's very own record of the experience, described ten years after the fact, is analyzed in Pío Baroja's book Juan van Halen, the brave authority (Juan van Halen, el oficial aventurero)
The arrangements of suspected Masons at that point made (many kept by the ruler) were a helpful device in the hands of amazing government officials to dispose of rivals, a considerable lot of whom might not have been Freemasons, as indicated by Emilio La Parra and Maria Angeles Casado.
Freemasonry returns in the Liberal Triennium, and builds up a political job. It was curbed again during the Ominous Decade. In 1824 Fernando VII established a Royal Charter denying "In the spaces of Spain and the Indies, all gatherings of Freemasons, rebels (Sp:communeros) and other mystery sects."
The stature to which the counter Masonic distrustfulness could rise is outlined by "Ideas about Freemasonry" a little book distributed in 1828 that states;
The Congregation of the Freemasons is a military request, assessed to contain a million men, which if fundamental can call upon and be helped by another two million new siblings and companions. ... Every one of the people of that gathering are equipped with a mallet.
Rule of Isabel II (1833-1868)
In 1834 the rule of María Cristina de Borbón proclaimed an acquittal for Freemasons however kept up the prohibition on Freemasonry. Soon after this the National Grand Orient of Spain was established in Lisbon and in 1839 the Sovereign Departmental Chapter in Barcelona, reliant on the Grand Orient.
During this period Freemasonry stayed concealed, which did not keep it from picking up force during the Progressivist biennium (1854-1856), particularly in Cuba, where some Masonic cabins took an interest in the autonomy development, as had happened when the American states were liberated from Spain somewhere in the range of 1810 and 1825
Six years of Democracy (1868-1874)
Freemasonry extended during the Six years of Democracy. In spite of the fact that cabins multiplied, exploiting the opportunity announced by the transformation of 1868, clashes emerged between the two devotions, the National Grand Orient of Spain and the Grand Orient of Spain. The last was increasingly equitable and considered Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla Grand Master. A standout amongst the most conspicuous government officials of his day, he was head administrator in 1872-1873 during the rule of Amadeo I. In 1876 he supplanted Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, another noticeable government official of the time and one of the columns, alongside Canovas del Castillo, of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. That equivalent year, 1876 a Senator, the Marquis de Seoane rose to lead the moderate National Grand Orient of Spain.
During this period Masons could approach and express their perspectives openly. The May 1, 1871 the "Official Bulletin of the Grand Orient of Spain" started to distribute, and the next year Masonic Pocket Dictionary of Pertusa was distributed. In the last work it was said that Freemasonry was an relationship of free men of good character, which has the sole and select reason for social improvement of humanity.
As indicated by Pere Sánchez, "This was a stone work with an all around not at all subtle political employment where not a couple of characters utilized its structure and their impact to move to power and esteem inside it, which (most would agree) met no resistance if the lawmaker being referred to would support their interests. It is no distortion to state that some of them would finish the 33 degrees (of the Scottish Rite) in three days and numerous others, who held significant positions, scarcely knew anything about the Freemasonry and did not go to ceremonies.
The oddity of the assault of the Catholic Church and Catholic fundamentalists on Freemasonry was that it was strengthened in his conviction that "on the planet two incredible powers strive for matchless quality. On one side we the Jesuits, real delegates of past, present and future oppressive regimes. On opposite side Freemasonry, the undisputed support of opportunity and human philanthropy" as indicated by an article distributed in the Bulletin of the Spanish Grand Orient in 1907.
This atmosphere of expanding antimasonry clarifies why, when the Cuban and Philippine insurgences happened in 1896, Masonry was blamed for working together with the autonomy development, and the police shut the Madrid home office of the Grand Orient of Spain and the National Grand Orient of Spain, taking all their documentation and capturing a few heads. This political weight, close by interior reasons, clarifies the emergency that Freemasonry looked when the new century rolled over, after which it never recaptured the "brilliant age" of the late nineteenth century. For instance, in 1920 the quantity of hotels in Barcelona did not surpass a dozen.
Protected Monarchy of Alfonso XIII and autocracy of Primo de Rivera (1902-1930)
Brick work was no more bizarre to the political clashes that existed in Spain in the early many years of the twentieth century. Maybe the best effect on the association was the "local issue" in which two originations of the Spanish State, the centralist and federalist confronted each another. In this way the Grand Orient of Spain protected a focal Madrid-based model while the Symbolic Grand Lodge Balearic Regional Catalano favored federalism, which drove them to work all through Spain from 1921 under the new name of the Spanish Grand Lodge, compromising the authority which the Spanish Grand Orient had delighted in. It endeavored to pursue the model of the United States, so decided to make a free Grand Lodge in every district of the Iberian promontory, including Portugal. After two years, in line with their Catalan hotels, the Grand Orient obtained a comparable structure. The association in Catalonia, for instance, was renamed Grand Lodge of Northeast Spain.
Then again, in the primary third of the twentieth century, lodges stopped to be solely white collar class, joining a not many regular workers individuals. The pioneers were some Catalan revolutionaries who, since the late nineteenth had been invading Masonic social orders. A few chiefs of the Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Español, among whom Anselmo Lorenzo figured unmistakably kept up serious movement from 1883 in Sons of Labor lodbge in Barcelona. Lorenzo then progressed toward becoming Master and Orator in Loyalty lodge. However, after the triumph of the October Revolution 1917 in Russia, the 1921 Third International under the Bolsheviks restricted related gatherings from having a place with Freemasonry, as a "common foundation". That equivalent year the Catalan cabins Loyalty (which, the next year conceded Lluís Companys) and Phoenix, some portion of the Grand Orient, distributed a booklet supported by Manuel Portela Valladares denouncing the Third International.
The oppressive arrangement of the fascism of Primo de Rivera viewing Freemasonry has been portrayed as subjective and conflicting. For instance, while Freemasons in Madrid held a National Assembly in May 1927, numerous Catalan cabins were shut and a portion of their individuals detained. During that time the Grand Orient stayed overwhelming with over a hundred cabins, despite the fact that the Grand Lodge had over fifty.
Second Spanish Republic (1931-1936)
The decree of the Second Spanish Republic opened another part ever of Freemasonry. The ensuing Francoist promulgation would limit the Republic, contending that it was crafted by Freemasons. The facts confirm that in there were countless appointees in the constituent get together who were individuals from a Masonic cabin, yet they didn't comprise a larger part. Ferrer Benimeli figures 183 of an aggregate of 458 delegates were Masons, primarily in liberal Republican gatherings. In Republican Left of Catalonia, 10 out of 26 agents were Masons, in Republican Action 19 out of 28, in the Radical-Socialist Party 34 out of 54, in different government groups, 48 out of 89 and from the Spanish Socialist Workers Party 44 out of 119. In the Provisional Government of the Second Spanish Republic six of the eleven priests were Masons. Be that as it may, these information, as per Pere Sánchez, "can not demonstrate that Masons framed a coalition of uniform arrangement or practice. Spanish Freemasonry can not along these lines be considered as a weight bunch in which individual conduct wound up subject to bound together objectives. Unmistakably there was a solid political inclination, yet this was never party political however pursued progressively broad standards, which were surrounded inside the fair beliefs of social equity, in no way, shape or form one of a kind to Freemasonry".
Common War and Francoist Spain (1936-1975)
During the Spanish Civil War Freemasons were mistreated in the renegade zone, and after the war all cabins were shut down. In 1940 Franco sanctioned the Law for the Suppression of Freemasonry and Communism, which turned into the lawful instrument to seek after constraint. The Special Tribunal for the Repression of Freemasonry and Communism worked until 1963, when it was supplanted by the Public Order Court, made under the equivalent law.
During the prompt post-Civil War crackdown, an expected 10,000 Spaniards were shot for essentially being Freemasons
In Francoist Spain Spanish Freemasonry just existed estranged abroad. The fabulous ace of the Grand Orient of Spain was Antonio Villar Masso, who alongside other Spanish outcasts, for example, Joan Bertran Deu had been taken in by the Grand Orient of France. In a meeting distributed in European space (espacios europeos) Villar Masso stated:
A March 22, 1972, in Paris, I was destined to life in a Masonic Lodge of the Spanish Grand Orient in a state of banishment. It was classified "Association Hispana No1". It was shaped by Spanish occupants of the French capital, and invited into the congenial cordiality of the Grand Orient of France, in one of whose sanctuaries at its home office on 16 Rue Cadet, the amazing service was held. With that Great Obedience, likewise with the Grand Lodge of Mexico and the Spanish-American Lodges as a rule, every Spanish Freemason have an obligation of respect that ought not be overlooked.
Numerous focuses and sanctuaries of Masonry were decimated all through the country. In 1936, in the principal order against Freemasonry managed by Franco, the Masonic Temple of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (the biggest Masonic focal point of Spain until that moment) was shut, tainted and seized by the Spanish Falange. Anyway not at all like what occurred in the remainder of the nation this sanctuary was never obliterated.
Just Transition (1975-1982)
Following the selection of the 1978 Constitution, Freemasonry was authorized in Spain on 19 May 1979 by a choice of Court of Administrative Litigation of the High Court which upset a choice of the Directorate General of Internal Policies on 7 February that year which had prohibited the Grand Orient of Spain. The expressed explanation behind the invalidation was that "the Directorate General of Internal Policy, in banning Spanish Regular Craft Masonry, surpassed the constrained statutory power that the Constitution gives government authority...which blocks the presentation of a preliminary of genuine and affirmed shrouded expectations in advancing their creation". The High Court put together its judgment with respect to the opportunity of affiliation perceived and secured by the Constitution.
Contemporary Spanish Freemasonry
The present picture of Masonic associations in Spain is that of a majority of various understandings of Masonic consistency, with the outcome that one may discover there a wide range of kinds of hotels: liberal, moderate, customary, mainstream, deistic, exclusive, provincial, national, global, just as male, female and blended.
In 1979 the Spanish Federation of Le Droit Humain proceeded with the work hindered in 1938 however proceeded in a state of banishment. Le Droit Humain is the first and most seasoned blended Masonic Order and now ranges more than fifty nations. The Symbolic Grand Lodge of Spain (established in 1980) additionally has blended cabins and is a piece of the CLIPSAS coalition. The male just Grand Lodge of Spain was established 1982, and has the acknowledgment of United Grand Lodge of England (just as most Grand Lodges in the United States) and has the most elevated number of hotels in contemporary Spain.
There is likewise the Feminine Grand Orient of Spain and the Feminine Grand Lodge of Spain, with other territorial executions of ladies' Masonry, for example, the Grand Lodge of the Canary Islands, the Grand Lodge of Catalonia and the Grand Orient of Catalonia. In 2003 the Hispanic Grand Priory was established, a dutifulness open just to Christians, and rehearsing the Rectified Scottish Rite.
Global Masonic associations, for example, the Grand Orient of France have a nearness in Spain. There are additionally Masonic Lodges of different associations, for example, the Grand Lodge of France or the Traditional and Symbolic Grand Lodge among others.
Correspondingly, in 2001, the Grand Orient of Iberia, a liberal dutifulness which, similar to the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Spain, invites male, female and blended hotels and works generally in the French Rite both in the Iberian promontory and in Mexico and France. In 2010 it had thirteen cabins, with one in Mexico City and two in Paris.
In 2007, the Iberian United Grand Lodge, an acquiescence which watched customary normality however not perceived by the United Grand Lodge of England developed.
In 2011 the Grand Lodge of Spain (the biggest Masonic gathering in Spain, whose individuals include 3,000 of the 3,600 Masons evaluated to live in the nation, the majority of them Spanish, with some British and French) distributed the main Masonic Barometer, a preview of their identity and what they care about as individuals from this gathering. As indicated by the conceptual distributed by the every day El Pais, "the outcome is that they are adherents (32% announce themselves Christian, without guiding explicitly toward any group, another 11.6% Roman Catholic), with solid, yet changed political feelings (28% proclaim themselves liberal, 16.3% social just, 15.6% moderate), and consider the most concerning issue confronting Spain right now is "the emergency of qualities." So separated from Christians and Catholics, there are additionally, to an a lot lesser degree (under 5% every), Protestants, Anglicans, Jews and Buddhists. Be that as it may, without a doubt the biggest class involves the individuals who announce themselves basically "profound without alliance to any religion" (35%). The Barometer clarifies that there are no nonbeliever Masons (contrasted with 8.8% of the overall population) refering to the quintessence of Freemasonry, which has its basic establishment in the Faith in a Higher Power
Masonic compliances in Spain
The Grand Lodge of Spain (Gran Logia de Espaňa) was made on November 6, 1982, in Madrid. Its present home office are in Barcelona and it comprises of 180 hotels situated all through the country. It is composed into eight Masonic Provinces (Andalusia, Balears, Canary Islands, Castille, Catalonia, Madrid, Murcia and Valencia), every one with its very own Provincial Grand Lodge. It is the Regular Masonic locale for Spain, having the acknowledgment of the United Grand Lodge of England, just as a large number of the other normal Grand Lodges far and wide.
The Symbolic Grand Lodge of Spain (Gran Logia Simbólica Española), which acknowledges the two people. It was established in 1980 and right now has 41 hotels situated around the nation.